Large Tesla Coil – Kaizer DRSSTC 3 – FULL POWER 19 kW!

We had a good session with the Large Tesla Coil. Trying out some different interrupters, targets and lighting around the coil, for filming. Darkness did however surprise us a bit and it was hard to adjust lighting and run the …

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Jingle Bell Rock, on a Musical Tesla Coil

Jingle Bell Rock played on my own musical Tesla Coil, the Kaizer DRSSTC 2 Tesla Coil using the USB MIDI Stick interrupter. “Jingle Bell Rock” is an American popular Christmas song first released by Bobby Helms in 1957. It has received frequent airplay in …

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Musical Tesla Coil with Tmax USB MIDI Stick

TMAX YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjzHB0f_nxv_XY8Z9P1BklQ TMAX website: https://tmax-electronics.de/projects/ GitHub: https://github.com/TMaxElectronics Not a paid promotion! I bought these from my own money. 1-2 channel Compact USB MIDI Stick: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1117.0 Played on my own DRSSTC2 Tesla Coil: https://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/kaizer-drsstc-ii/ Learn how to build your own …

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Portal – Still Alive, on a Musical Tesla Coil

Played on my own DRSSTC2 Tesla Coil: https://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/kaizer-drsstc-ii/ Learn how to build your own DRSSTC to play music: https://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/drsstc-design-guide/ MIDI/Music interrupters you can build yourself 4 channel polyphonic MIDI: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1020.0 1 channel compact/simple USB MIDI: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1117.0 1 channel analog audio: …

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Star Wars – Imperial Death March, on a Musical Tesla Coil

Played on my own DRSSTC2 Tesla Coil: https://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/kaizer-drsstc-ii/ Learn how to build your own DRSSTC to play music: https://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/drsstc-design-guide/ MIDI/Music interrupters you can build yourself: 4 channel polyphonic MIDI: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1020.0 1 channel compact/simple USB MIDI: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1117.0 1 channel analog audio: …

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Doom 2 – Readme, on a Musical Tesla Coil

Played on my own DRSSTC2 Tesla Coil: https://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/kaizer-drsstc-ii/ Learn how to build your own DRSSTC to play music: https://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/drsstc-design-guide/ MIDI/Music interrupters you can build yourself: 4 channel polyphonic MIDI: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1020.0 1 channel compact/simple USB MIDI: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=1117.0 1 channel analog audio: …

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3 new MIDI videos with Kaizer DRSSTC1

Ghostbusters theme “Ghostbusters” is a song written by Ray Parker Jr. as the theme to the film of the same name starring Bill Murray, Dan Aykroyd, Harold Ramis, and Ernie Hudson. The Buggles – Video killed the Radio Star “Video Killed the Radio Star” is a song written …

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3x MIDI videos from DRSSTC1 demonstration

3 well-known classic songs are played with lightning on my medium sized Tesla coil, if you want to play these songs yourself you can find all MIDI files played on the Tesla coil can be found in this forum thread …

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24 kV Marx generator

Introduction

This was my first high voltage circuit that eventually led me into building other high voltage generators, supplies and Tesla coils.

A Marx generator works by the principle of charging up a number of capacitors in parallel and when the voltage is high enough to break down the spark gaps, the capacitors will be discharged in series. When a Marx generator fires, it is said to be erected.

 

Safety

WARNING!: Working with electricity is dangerous, all information found on my site is for educational purpose and I accept no responsibility for others actions using the information found on this site.

Read this document about safety! http://www.pupman.com/safety.htm

Considerations

A Marx generator can work as a electromagnetic pulse generator, at high energy levels, if it is not shielded and grounded correctly. You can risk damaging electronic equipment if this circuit is not constructed or operated in a safe manner with these precautions in mind.

In the construction of the Marx generator it is very important to give great thought to distances that works as insulation between stages and components. An advantage against spark gap jitter can be achieved easily and for free by designing all the spark gap in one line where they can see each other. The UV light from the first spark gap will help break down the following spark gap and so forth.

The ideal Marx generator circuit will deliver n times the input voltage with n stages. So with a 4 kV supply and 6 stages, ideally I should have 24 kV output.

Each stage of 1 nF is charged to 4 kV and gives me 0.008 Joule energy per stage. With all 6 stages in series the capacitance is now 1/6 and the voltage is 6 times higher. So the erected capacitance is now 167 pF with 24 kV across it resulting in 0.048 Joule discharge energy.

 

Specifications

Voltage supply 4 kV at 20 mA / 20 kHz from a solid state neon sign transformer.
Stage design 6 stages of 2x 1M5 3500 V charging resistors and 1 nF 7500V capacitors
Discharge 24 kV at 0.048 Joule
Longest arc 20 mm sparks

Schematic

 

Construction

14th April 2008

The 4 kV supply used is a solid state neon sign transformer that delivers 20 mA. The output comes at 20 kHz from the switching and normally is no problem for a neon tube, but I need to rectify it to use it in the Marx generator as DC supply is needed. A string of 10 1N4007 diodes are used for a 10 kV rectifying diode.

3500V 1M5 metal-oxide resistors were used with two in series for each stage and 1 nF 7500V ceramic capacitors, this gave a good head room for a 4 kV stage voltage.

The long leads on the capacitors were used as the spark gap by soldering them to the string of resistors as far up the legs as possible and then bending them into forming spark gaps.

 

Conclusion

A Marx generator in this size and level of supply voltage is a very forgiving and hard to break circuit. This makes it perfect as a entry level circuit for high voltage experiments.

The few number of components makes it cheap and it is easy to source the high voltage capacitors on Ebay.

The sparks generated from the Marx generator is very loud and it is easy to gain higher voltages and thus longer sparks by just adding more stages. A circuit that is easy to upscale just by adding more stages and where output is quickly calculated with number of stages.

Definitely a must-build circuit for everyone with a interest in high voltage generation and experimentation.

 

Demonstration

28th April 2008

4000 Joule Capacitor Bank

Introduction

The idea behind a capacitor bank is to charge up as much energy as possible to short circuit that energy through small coils, aluminium paper, steel wool, wire and a lot of other things that can conduct a electric current. The short circuit current is enormous for a very short time and that big amount of energy can turn the conducting paths material into vapour.

To get an idea about how much energy 4000 Joule is, here is a couple of examples.

A human heart consumes 1 Joule of energy per heartbeat.

4000 Joule could lit up a 60W light bulb for 66 seconds, using a low energy 11W bulb it could be lit for 6 minutes.

4000 Joule is just enough for cooking 50 gram of water, to bring it from 20 degree Celsius to 100 degree Celsius.

 Safety

WARNING!: Working with electricity is dangerous, all information found on my site is for educational purpose and I accept no responsibility for others actions using the information found on this site.

Read this document about safety! http://www.pupman.com/safety.htm

DANGER!: High energy discharges can be lethal, the amount of energy released overwhelms what a human limp or life can withstand.

 Considerations

A long time have passed since I built my first capacitor bank, the 333 Joule microwave oven capacitor bank. Since then I wanted to build a larger, but these large capacitors does not turn up often at a reasonable price. Patience was all I needed before picking up a Maxwell energy discharge capacitor from ebay at 40 Euro. It is not a pulse discharge capacitor, but will be well up for the little wear it will see in this use.

When discharging a capacitor into a circuit with a inductance, which could also just be its own equivalent inductance, the voltage will ring between the capacitor and the inductive part of the circuit, resulting in voltage reversal which can be very harmful for the capacitor. There are many ways to counter this and some of them are complex and expensive, for now I will ensure that a part of the circuit will be a thinner wire, that will always explode, and thus cutting the circuit.

Wear and tear on spark gaps is highly dependent on the energy transfer taking place. It is not as much affected by very high peak currents or energy levels, but the charge in Coulombs. Using the capacitor energy calculator on this site shows you both values and you will quickly discover that a high capacity low voltage bank will have a high stored charge versus a low capacity high voltage bank, despite they have the same energy stored, the factor in stored charge is 10 times higher for the high capacity bank.

Specifications

High voltage supply776 to 1855 VDC from two transformers in step up setup and a voltage doubler.
Capacity2423uF
Full charge voltage1800 VDC.
Stored energy4050 Joule.
Stored charge4.5 Coulombs.
Trigger mechanismSpring loaded spark gap switch.

 Schematic

Calculations

Having a capacitor bank with a large capacitance, I found it attractive to be able to charge it to different energy levels without being forced to use a variac. Knowing the exact energy stored will also make analysis of the discharges more precise.

By using the multiply input voltage taps on the step down transformer with an input voltage of 230VAC I get a varying output that I put into a step up transformer where I use the 656VAC output tap. Doing this I get a output voltage range from the voltage doubler from 776 volt to 1855 Volt.

Voltage² (Volt) • capacity (Farad) • 0,5 = energy (Joule)

1855² • 0,002423 • 0,5 = 4168 joule

In the following table I have all the charge possibilities listed.

VoltageEnergyTerminals
776 Volt729 Joule1 and 7
813 Volt800 Joule2 and 7
854 Volt883 Joule3 and 7
889 Volt957 Joule1 and 6
928 Volt1043 Joule2 and 6
970 Volt1139 Joule3 and 6
1028 Volt1280 Joule1 and 5
1067 Volt1379 Joule2 and 5
1123 Volt1527 Joule3 and 5
1855 Volt4168 Joule2 and 4

 Construction

I wanted to as many of the parts I have already at hand and focus on using parts that are odd and will have a hard time to find a place in other projects. The first focus of this was on the power supply, looking through my stack of transformers I found two that could be used for a step up transformer arrangement with the possibility of lowering the charge voltage as described above under calculations.

Capacitors and diodes for the voltage doubler is all salvaged from old electronic equipment and is right about on the edge of their ratings. Each string of diodes can withstand 2400 volt and the capacitors can withstand 1800 volt. I hope my decision about the capacitors is good enough, I did it to use a minimum of components and still maintain a capacity large enough to smooth the DC properly.

The spring loaded spark gap switch and charger switch is a copy of the switch I built for the 333 joule capacitor bank. I was a little worried that the rather small construction was not good enough for roughly 12 times the energy. I reinforced the switch with some heavy copper pieces and larger gauge wires and mesh. The biggest advantage of this switch is that I avoid making a protective circuit for the charger as its completely disconnected when the capacitor discharges.

Shot record

In order to keep track of capacitor lifespan, here is a list of the different shots that have been made with it.

100 Joule3x steel wool + 1 Ohm resistor
300 Joule2x steel wool + 1 Ohm resistor
700 Joule2x 10 strands of AWG40
1000 Joule8x steel wool
1x 200cm 0.25mm copper wire
4000 Joule10x steel wool
10x miniature breaker and fuses
25x various electronics like phones

 Crushed cans, sparks and explosions

Steel wool
5th August 2012

The was the first test shot, 1 kJ into a small twist of steel wool.

11th August 2012

The current measurements was done with a Pearson current monitor model 101 connected to a 10x probe and a Rigol DS1052e oscilloscope. Attenuation on the oscilloscope was set to 1x. So numbers should be multiplied by 10.

Current measurements of steel wool, 60 mm length, 10 mm diameter, with 1 kJ energy discharged. Measured peak current 13 kA.

Current measurements of steel wool, 60 mm length, 10 mm diameter, with 4 kJ energy discharged. Measured peak current 29 kA.

A close up of the trigger spark gap doing a shot and the wear caused to it from about 10 high energy shots.

Conclusion

Having only fired the capacitor bank once, at 1 kJ, it is a little early to draw any other conclusions than it works as planned and its an ear deafening loud blast when it fires.

Having now conducted a 4 kJ shot, I can only say that it is a far as one should go with energy discharges in a small room. Feeling the pressure wave from the blast is the point where this continues outside.

Having measured 29 kA through a piece of steel wool makes me very satisfied with this capacitor, it is around 3 times more than I expected from this. Further measurements of short circuits through heavy conductors show level of around 25kA to 30kA.

Demonstration

5th August 2012 – 1 kJ shot into steel wool

19th October 2014 – 4kJ shot into steel wool

19th October 2014 – 1kJ shot into 200 cm 0.25 mm copper wire

19th October 2014 – 4kJ shot into a iPod

19th October 2014 – 4kJ shot through a Mini circuit breaker (SEKO DZ47-63 C10 1P+N)