To use the calculator for transistor base resistor values, Its IMPORTANT that you read the following.

## Transistor datasheet values

- First, calculate the current you need to pass through the transistor when its on, that is your
**collector current**. - Secondly, find the
**current gain, beta, Hfe**. These values is in the datasheet for the specific transistor. To calculate for the worst case, use the**minimum Hfe value or the correct value,**for the collector current you need. **Vce voltage**is the voltage across collector and emitter.**Base voltage**is the voltage that you use to drive the base of the transistor with.**Voltage drop is the Vbe(sat) value**, you will get this from the datasheet looking at the graph for Vbe and Vce(sat) vs. collector current.

To get the best result, consider the following

- To insure to turn the transistor fully on, you can double the value for collector current. As a result you get a base resistor value half of what this calculator gives you.
- For example, it is here given for the highest collector current and worst case amplification factor, Hfe. Values for your circuit might vary, be sure to enter values for your own needs.
- To calculate for a PNP transistor, enter negative numbers in collector current, base voltage and voltage drop.

To help you remember the pinout of the NPN and PNP transitors:

Examples are given for NPN transistors 2N2222, 2N3055, 2N3904, BC547, TIP31, TIP31A, TIP31C, TIP41, TIP41A, TIP41C and PNP transistors 2N3906.

## Formulas and math used for the transistor base resistor calculator

Ohms law: Base resistor = (Supply voltage – Voltage drop) / (Collector current / Beta)

The electronic components needed are a regular color banded 5-band resistor, the bands represent the Ohm value, resistor tolerance and in some cases temperature coefficient.

AlexHi great little calculator. I am having trouble finding Vbe(sat) for a BD244 in the data-sheet http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/motorola/BD244C.pdf

And it states two different Hfe values, would it be ok if you took a look?

I want to drive the transistor using an SG3525 chip and I want to ideally have it passing about 2 amps (for a gate drive transformer).

Thanks.

Mads BarnkobHey Alex

If you look at “Figure 8. DC Current Gain” in the datasheet you can see a DC current vs Hfe curve, at 2 Ampere its 50 gain.

Kind regards

Mads

KennethWith every Arduino project that activates a relay which is connected via a TIP120 transistor to a 12 volts psu, the base resistor suggested is 1K.

Using your calc:

collector current=5 amp

hfe=1000

supply voltage=12v

vbe=2.5v

then base resistor=1.9k

Why? Am I doing something wrong? Should I use a 2k instead?

Best regards

Kenneth

Mads BarnkobHey Kenneth

As I wrote in the bottom of the important text above the calculator

“To insure to turn the transistor fully on, you can double the value for collector current, which will result in a base resistor value half of what this calculator gives you.”

Kind regards

Mads

GregAny chance of getting the formulas behind this calulator so that I can put them in an excel spread sheet and better understand how to do them manually?

Mads Barnkob(Supply voltage – voltage drop) / (Collector current / Hfe)

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Danilo TostesDrop Voltage meaning Vebo (Collector-Emitter Voltage), right?

Mads BarnkobVoltage drop is the Vbe(sat) value, you will get this from the datasheet looking at the graph for Vbe and Vce(sat) vs. collector current.

Pete“TIP32C”: PNP-transistor; Collector current=3A

– hfe:

Ic=-1A Uce=-4V min=25

Ic=-3A Uce=-4V min=10

Both max=50

Power supply: batteries about 12V (3×18650)

Motor: 12V stall current as high as 2.5A(3A safe)

How to count base resistor ? (Someone suggested pull-up resistor 10kΩ why ?!?)

Constantin BushofskyHello, I am a semi-beginner (intermediate, I guess), but have little experience with bjt transistors. I tend to stick to things with MOSFETS and relays. I was wondering if I could use a resistor value lower than if I gave double collecter current (.16A), but higher than if I used normal collecter current (.08A).

Mads BarnkobPete: I am unsure about your application, a motor driver will not draw a continues current, but rather pulses with a higher current. I think you should use the average current, lets say 0.5A and Hfe 50, supply voltage 12V, voltage drop 1.2V, you get around 1K base resistor. If your logic that switches the base of the transistor can not deliver enough current, a pull-up resistor can be used.

Constantin Bushofsky: Yes you can use other values outside of these ranges, but you risk to be operating in liniar mode if it is too large and thus will slow turn on or if the resistance is too small you will allow more current to be drawn from your driver and it might not be able to do so.

PeteMads:

PWM from here: (This is were I start building. “Skeleton body PWM”)

http://www.easterngeek.com/2008/06/simple-and-dirty-pulse-width-modulation.html

Now:

They suggested I should add transistor(TIP32 or something) to make it able to use more amperes because now only 0.2A: 555’s IC is the bottle neck.

Tuned same PWM:(It is an amateur drawing so be gentle judging it. My first pretty much. Don’t know if it even works but so far it looks at least somewhat like a pwm.)

http://i1321.photobucket.com/albums/u556/12356562/WiringsPWMDC6-12V3Aatleast_zpscbe31a28.jpg

To use basic 12V geared DC motor(60rpm) which uses a lot more amperes(more than 555’s 0.2A) I have to add transistor and I don’t know what kind of and what resistor to use ?

Mads BarnkobHey Pete

You have quite a few mistakes in your schematic, take a look at this example: http://www.pcbheaven.com/circuitpages/PWM_Fan_controller_using_a_555/

If you compared your circuit and the above, you can see that you have only put a transistor in parallel over the 555 output, this will not work. You want the 555 to drive the transistor and the transistor to drive the motor.

A base resistor is used to limit the amount of current the 555 have to supply, a 555 that delivers 200 mA is stressed a lot btw. I would aim for somewhere around a maximum of 100 mA, with a 100R base resistor and a 10K pull-up you should have a sturdy driver for your TIP32C.

Kind regards

Mads

PeteMads:

Ok got it 🙂 🙂 +++++

Do I need all components PCB above 3A or P=UI=12V*3A=36W ?

– 40W resistors.

– 3A diodes.

– Capacitors 12V(x4 safe)= about 50V.

– Potentiometer 40W.

– Transistor 3A(TIP32C)

=> Shopping list ready to the Ebay.com cave I go… 🙂

PeteHere’s the updated picture:

http://i1321.photobucket.com/albums/u556/12356562/CasPWMDC6-12V3Aatleast_zpsf2273a12.jpg

Mads BarnkobHey Pete

Only your transistor needs the rating it has. Your capacitors will be more than happy with 4x rating. Resistors, diodes and potentiometer should just be 1/4W resistors, 1A diodes and potmeter just a regular one, no need for high power ratings in the control circuit. The heavy current only flows from your battery through transistor and into motor.

Kind regards

Mads

akuin your example BC547 transistor has hfe Ic=2mA Vce=5V Min value is 200 how then you put Beta(hfe) 100?

Mads BarnkobHey Aku

In my example Ic is 100 mA.

Kind regards

Mads

Constantin BushofskyHello, I was wondering something. I have a NPN transistor set up with a battery pack at the collector, another battery pack at the base, and an LED at the emitter. I was wondering where I should connect the ground for the battery pack at the base.

Mads BarnkobHello Constantin

Use a common ground for you batteries and circuit. Base current flows from base to emitter in a transitor.

Kind regards

Mads

RajeshSir, kindly tell me what is the base resistor value and watt. Is it really 1 ohm 5 watt as predicted? And is there any other resistor required for collecter also ? (my in put is 24 volt 6 amps maximum ) If so what is the value and watt for uploaded figure. What about the heat sink? Only for 2N6292 or 7815 also. required ? Please tell me

Mads BarnkobHello rajesh

The 2N6292 transistor can only conduct uninterrupted DC current of 2.3A at 15VDC, look at the Safe Operating Area graph in the datasheet. If you try to pass a higher current than this, even with a large heat sink on the transistor, it will dissipate more than its maximum rating of 40W and will be destroy from excessive heat.

With a Icm of 2.3A, Hfe 30, base voltage 15 and Vbe(sat) at 3.5V I calculated the base resistor to be 150 Ohm, so you could use between 75 to 100 Ohm 3W base resistor to ensure fast switch on.

You need a heat sink on the 2N6292 transistor, but not in the 7815 regulator as it only conducts 0.15A.

Kind regards

Mads

RajeshSir. Thank you for your quick reply sir thanks ..

But According to data sheet maximum collector current is 7 amps for 2N6292. How you say it gives only 2.3 AMPS maximum ? Please describe me sir. I am new to transistor circuits

And also you had calculated the care resistor as 150 ohm and telling of to use 75 to 100 ohm resistor . Why ? Please explain me sir.

Mads BarnkobHey Rajesh

The maximum collector current is determined by the maximum power dissipation of 40 Watt. So the 7 A is only at 5 VDC, take a look at page 4, figure 5 in the datasheet: http://www.onsemi.com/pub_link/Collateral/2N6107-D.PDF

150 Ohm is the calculated value, it is calculated on lossless and absolute values assuming zero resistance in all wires, so to ensure full turn on, we lower the calculated resistance down to 50% lower to account for these parameters or if we want the transistor to turn on faster.

Kind regards

Mads

RajeshThank you sir,

if I use 56 ohm base resistor what is the wattage of the resistor?

Mads BarnkobHey Rajesh

If we assume the worst amplification, Hfe = 30 and it is conducting 1.5 A C-E, the base would need 50 mA. That is 0.75 W at 15 VDC base voltage. So use a 1 Watt resistor.

Kind regards

Mads

my nameWhy there are only NPN trnsistors in the dropdown list? How do I get base voltage for PNP when I drive it to 0V to turn it on?

Mads BarnkobTo calculate for a PNP transistor, enter negative numbers in collector current, base voltage and voltage drop.

josefor some reason the base resistor value is not updating for me. tested in windows and linux, firefox, msie and chromium

Mads BarnkobHey jose

Thank you for giving me a notice, javascript and wordpress editor is not the best friends and it strips some code without asking, I corrected the errors and it should be working again.

Kind regards

Mads

Amdani WijayaDear Admin,

Thanks for posting.

Now I want to calculate the wattage of the resistor to the transistor base (Rb).

Do you think the formula that I use it correctly?

P-Rb = Vin x Ib.

Please confirm and correction if I am wrong.

Regards,

Amdani

Mads BarnkobHi Amdani Wijaya

You are correct about the formula for base resistor wattage calculation.

Kind regards

Mads

Amdani WijayaHi Mads,

thank you so much for your quick response.

very useful

Kind Regards,

Amdani

StevenHello

I’m an engineering (but not electrical) student and need to design a psu (no ICs). Input ranges from 70Vpk 40A 200hz to 22Vpk 5A 50hz (from a turbine alternator). Output must be 12V, < or =5A. Using multisim I tried a PWM and switch but couldn't get it to work.

I put in a darlington (although I don't know much about them yet) and it works well enough but the power across it must be a problem at 70Vpk 40A, is this even possible?

And must I have a resistor if I'm trying to use it as a switch with a PWM controller? Sorry if its a stupid question, I'm an absolute beginner and its super confusing.

Steven

Mads BarnkobHi Steven

You do not have a specific input current, the current drawn from your turbine alternator will be dependent on the load you present to it.

You always need a base resistor to control the amount of current you want to conduct through the transistor.

I think you should read some more about power supply design or find a proven design. With a wide input voltage range it can be quite complex to build without a IC.

Kind regards

Mads

StevenHi Mads

Thanks for your reply. I think the complexity is the aim of the project and I’m struggling to find something similar to compare with, also I’m not sure why input current was specified. I thought a buck regulator would be best but under simulation the voltage increased under decreasing load whereas it worked well with the darlington. There must be too much power dissipation across a transistor with 68Vdc at collector and 12Vdc at emitter? Can a PWM switch a transistor on and off, but maybe not a darlington? I thought I had seen it.

Thanks for your time,

Steven.

StevenAnd could I please just clarify, the collector current would be same as load current? Ice= Iout e.g. 5A and so power rating would be Vin-Vout (68-12) x Ice = 280W? Completely impractical even with a heat sink right?

Thank you again, I’m having trouble understanding transistors as you can tell.

Cheers, Steven.

K SuryaHi Sir, I want to use 2n3055 as pass transistor in zener diode voltage regulator. Input voltage is 19v laptop supply, and zener diode 15v to get 14.4v output. with your calculator I got 16ohms as base resistor. output current is 4 amps. can I use 16ohms 1 watt resistor.

Mads BarnkobHi K Surya

Which values did you enter into the calculator, because for 4A current with a Vce(sat) of 0.3V, I get a 5 Ohm base resistor.

Kind regards

Mads

Leon NelHi Mads…I want to build an AVR for a generator (6.5 Kva). I found a circuit designed by Lazar Rozenblat which I think might do the trick. Inter alia he uses a transistor 2N6515 in the circuit but the value of R6 was unfortunately left out. If you could perhaps locate the circuit..please calculate the value of R6 if possible with the available data. Thank you.

Leon Nel.

I found the circuit under ..Circuit diagram for generator.

Mads BarnkobHi Leon

I assume you mean this circuit: http://portable.generatorguide.net/avr.html

From the link in that article, to a discussion, it is written that R6 is a 2K potentiometer: https://forum.allaboutcircuits.com/threads/honda-generator-automatic-voltage-regulator.18074/

Kind regards

Mads

Darius ClaudeHi.

Can i find thoses calcul by application. Please text me an link.

T. You.

AleksandarTranslate from: Bosnian

1116/5000

Respect, sir! I have a problem with a regulator and I think you can best help me. Like most people, I’m reporting this because of Rb-based resistors. I use the semicolon with the LM317 IC and I have 22VAC, some 31VDC after the condenser and in the wheel. The LM31T gives max 1.5A, I want to increase or decrease this value. In one half I found that the PNP MJ2955 transistor located in front of the IC LM317T has a resistor based on 10R (I do not know the power), so in the end I get 20R power to 7A. I know that the voltage of the base must be about 0.7V, and also the base current would have to be 0.7A or I’m wrong. I do not have any parameters that I would be able to reach 10R resistors at all. I used DS and tried with all possible numbers and I still can not fit in to get a valid solution. I would be glad if you could help me understand this. I did not come to the solution of Om’s law because the rope should be inserted into some other parameters. If any explanation could be grateful to you. Otherwise, this PNP should show how I understood limiting the current at the exit … thanks in advance … respect!

AleksandarI try to add Scheme in Proteus but i can’t make it…

AleksandarOr i can use BD244C… But again i can’t undertand…

AleksandarI can’t use rar file…

This is set on 12V and for LOAD i used POT of 20W!. Whay i have 10R resistor. I can’t find that mat logic…

Aleksandarhttps://filesend.jp/D0NSJu

There is RAR file… Try to open… I realy want to know where i am wrong…

In reality i use bulb who have abot 03.6R (200R range on dig. multimetar), 12V/5W…

Thaks for answering! Greatings from Aleksandar!

AleksandarOffcorse when is voltage small, amps go Up crazy… When i turn both p[ot on 100% i have 27.5V/1.35A

Sorry for wraitings, but i have to sugest you everythin becouse you can;t se proteus file…

I hope know you can on link above…

Thanks again…

AleksandarAnd becouse that , i know that to must use resistor on Rc to limit out current from pnp… am i write?

LM317T have max current of 1.5A… I want to construct cicut for 3A and 5A… and i thin it is posibile…

One of my transformer have 25VAC/1A/25VA… I have transformer 250W/22VAC, with bacar coil 1.55… When i use some seconf regulator i have no difrent results… Probably is for this smal and low Wats is no good idea… i know that but i just expriment… And regulators have constant current. I have a simple scheme for regulate voltage and ampeers if somone want i post a piscture here… in my country (Serbia) on one of better forum they don’t belive me to work. I copy scheme from some guy on YT and on my desk and sinmulation work. Meyby must to correct something but work…

and sorry about lenguage…

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