TL494 Flyback Driver


I wanted to design a versatile TL494 Flyback Driver circuit that could drive a half- or full-bridge of MOSFETs or IGBTs through a gate drive transformer (GDT). This should make a driver that is able to run flyback transformers found in CRT TV sets and computer monitors.

The TL494 IC is designed for maintaining all the functions needed in a switching mode power supply using pulse width modulation (PWM). The output transistors can be run in either single ended mode or push-pull. The pulse width is normally controlled through a feedback signal in the power supply, but for this project we want to control it manually, this is done differently in almost all schematics found.

Published on: Jun 14, 2013. Updated on: Nov 28, 2017.


WARNING!: Working with electricity is dangerous, all information found on my site is for educational purpose and I accept no responsibility for others actions using the information found on this site.

Read this document about safety!


Flyback transformers from a CRT TV are typically driven at 15 kHz and flyback transformers from computer monitors are typically driven between 30 to 150 kHz.

The TL494 IC uses a 5% dead time to insure proper switching and at frequencies over 150 kHz this minimum dead time is higher.

The design goals for this project will be a driver with a variable duty cycle from 0% to 45% and a variable frequency from 50 kHz to 150 kHz.

This should make for a efficient driver and one that works out of the audible spectrum. In order to design with components at hand, the frequency span is not going so low as 15 kHz.


Voltage supplyIRFP250N: 0 VAC to 120 VAC
Frequency span38 kHz to 150 kHz.
Duty cycle span0% to 43%

 TL494 Flyback Driver Schematic

The schematic has been updated Nov 28, 2017, to correct an error pointed out by this user: , the problem was that the TL494 output was inverted and thus the dead-time was instead a very fast short circuit.


Design and calculations

The output control on pin 13 is set high from the 5 Volt reference voltage on pin 14, this makes the two output transistors work in push-pull mode, which will be used to drive each their non-inverted MOSFET driver IC.

For further study and experiments the output control can be tied to ground to enable single end mode, the two output transistors will be in phase and can be paralleled for a higher output driving current. This could be used if only driving one transistor or non-inverted and inverted MOSFET drivers are used.

Its possible to implement features as soft start and over-voltage , -current protection with the dead time control on pin 4, I have chosen to wire this to ground which disables the DTC. This is a versatile and experimental driver circuit and when at some point a final product is going to be made, it would make sense to build in these protective circuits.

The outputs are each connected to the positive rail through a 150R 2W pull up resistor to bring the output signal up in amplitude.


The frequency is determined by Rt (pin 6) and Ct (pin 5) as a normal RC timing circuit.

I choose to use a 1 nF capacitor, so I can calculate the resistor values and find what potentiometer is needed, I aimed to use a 10 kΩ potentiometer as I had them at hand.

The frequency in push-pull operations are f = 1/(2Rt * Ct)

Resistor value for 50 kHz = (1/(50000 * (1 * 10^-9)))/2) = 10K (rounded)

Resistor value for 150 kHz = (1/(150000 * (1 * 10^-9)))/2) = 3K3 (rounded)

So the lowest value will be at Rt = 3K3

The frequency can be lower than 50 kHz without complications, so combined with a 10 kΩ potentiometer the low frequency will be = 1/((2 * 13300) * (1 * 10^-9)) ~ 38 kHz.

Duty cycle

The TL494 have two error amplifiers which I for the sake of leaving no inputs floating have paralleled. This is the same method used in the data sheet when making a test circuit.

To adjust the duty cycle I have set up the error amplifier as a voltage follower, the feedback from the op-amp is tied to the – input, that way the output voltage will be just under the input voltage. With a potentiometer and a resistor I can vary the input voltage from 0.5 V to 4.76 V, this voltage span is enough to adjust the duty cycle from 0 to 43%.

What I then have here is variable frequency from 38 kHz to 150 kHz and variable duty cycle from 0% to 43%. This is acceptable in respect to the design goals.

TL494 Flyback Driver Construction

25th May 2009

The breadboard prototype is ready to be tested, the tape is to hold the timing capacitor in place since the legs on it was too short.

In the first oscilloscope shot we see the output waveform without pull up resistors, it is about 38 kHz at 43% duty cycle.

In the second oscilloscope shot we see the output waveform without pull up resistors, it is about 38 kHz at 5-7% duty cycle.

In the third oscilloscope shot we see the output waveform without pull up resistors, it is about 150 kHz at 43% duty cycle.

27th May 2009

PCBs was made for both the driver and half-bridge section. The full bridge rectifier used here in the pictures is only rated for a mere 4 A. This is not enough for running a flyback with low input voltage and high duty cycle. A 25 A bridge with heat sink should be used to ensure some overhead.

Test of TL494 Flyback Driver

29th May 2009

In the oscilloscope shot we see the waveform of the primary side of the GDT driving a MOSFET half-bridge. To test the circuit I first used a old half-bridge I had from an earlier project.

The sturdiness of this new driver shines through when I killed a flyback transformer due to over-voltage on the secondary side. Corona glow can be seen in the center towards the ferrite core.


This universal inverter makes it possible to adjust the output voltage and current exactly to ones needs. It makes a great and much more sturdy flyback driver than many simple drivers with just a single transistor, which is of course no surprise as it implements its own control IC, MOSFET driver ICs and a half-bridge of MOSFETs.

For a final constant voltage or current power supply it will not work, as there is no feedback adjusting the pulse width to a certain load.


56 thoughts on “TL494 Flyback Driver”

  1. Is that 10 turns primary on a 140V DC bus? no wonder the flyback arced over lol.

    Did you leave the core spacers in or remove them? Its just I have read conflicting information regarding the core spacers when using bridge drivers.

  2. Hey Alex

    I was running it at violently high voltages, yes, 10 turns 140VDC, poor little flyback 🙂

    I did not remove the air gap and it is my understanding that you use the air gap in chokes as you want to store energy. While in transformers you have no gap as you want to transfer energy. Flyback transformers are usually described as a choke with primary and secondary coils due to their purpose. A cheap energy transfer that requires little circuitry.

    When using a bridge to drive a transformer there should be no air gap as we do not need to store energy as we transfer energy to it for each cycle.

    Kind regards

  3. Hi Mads.

    I did some experimenting and found that the gap seems to prevent the core from going into saturation, but at the cost of increased MOSFET heating. For example without the gap and a DC blocking capacitor inserted in series I was still able to saturate the core from just drawing arcs (current draw shot up).

    But with a gap it seemed to give some current limiting action but at the expense of more MOSFET heating.

    Magnetics, they are black magic lol.


  4. Pingback: TL494 flyback driver | Kaizer Power Electronics

  5. It’s not a magic – it’s a lack of snubbing. This bridge have no effective snubber (parallel diodes are not enough) and energy stored in load inductance is heating up MOSFETs. The air gap have two functions:
    -Makes core saturation harder to achieve
    -Increase energy stored in core
    First function is alway wanted, but second increase “inductive kick” heating up poorly protected MOSFETs. However, bridge designed like in attachment should have no troubles since energy disharged from load will be safely disposed (this circuit is popular among local tesla coil builders, compared to simple designs like showed here it greatly increase stability and decrease MOSFET heating while offering also much more durability ).

  6. I’m slowly gathering information on how to build a CO2 laser to be used in a CNC laser cutter. The HV power supply is a critical part of the design and this looks a very promising design to use.
    I would want to put a rectifier on the output of the flyback transformer to achieve around 30kV peak DC to make the tube strike and then maintain approximately 30mA current during lasing. I have my own ideas on how to achieve a safe way to monitor output current and provide feedback to the controlling chip.

    I’d be very grateful for any comments you have on this idea, particularly regarding the use of gaps (or not) in the core and whether these cores would saturate in this application.

  7. Hi kit

    The driver itself will be able to deliver 900W as your design goal is. A smalle flyback transformer from a Tv set or computer monitor will not. Maybe you can use more transformers in parallel or as a last resort wind your own on a large ferrite core.

    Kind regards and happy new year

  8. Mads,
    Thank you very much for the prompt reply, and a happy new year to you too.

    This is going to be a long project so I think I’ll build and test the power supply with a standard transformer core and then experiment with alternative cores once I’m somewhere near having a working laser tube.

    Thanks again


  9. Hats off to Mads for providing such a great place to find this kind of information!

    I also want to say hi to Kit. Over the past few weeks, I’ve also been designing a power supply to drive a CO2 laser. Much like you, I’ve been researching this area heavily. I currently have a working machine, but my aim is to make a second one as much DIY as possible. If you like, feel free to reach out to me to toss around ideas and share insights.

    Thanks again guys and take care

  10. Hi to hvlaser!
    I’ve seen DIY lasers using Tesla coil style PSUs on YouTube, but, like you I’m sure, I want something with a more stable, measurable and controllable output. A lot less electrical interference so close to the computer and other digital circuitry performing the CNC function would be a good idea as well.



  11. Hi kit and hvlaser

    I hope you find some good solutions in cooperation and please return with a link to your work if you happen to document it on your own site or some forum.

    I am looking forward to see what you get to.

    Kind regards

  12. Hi Mads Barnkob,
    I was participate in my school technology competition for the previous time (I won the second prize! And there’s no first prize) and haven’t got much time to see this page, today I saw it and feel I really need to build one.
    I have some advise: why don’t you use the built-in primary? Usually it’s the two first pin on the left of the flyback, the first pin is gnd and the second one next to it is Vcc (in this case :140V DC input).
    In any case I think we need to ensure as least 3-5% dead time to be on the safe side. Then over current protection should be added as well, voltage regulation is always welcomed.
    The circuit show that currently the switch is wired in a half bridge configuration, making a full bridge will increase output power. To make it work with 220v lines then what could I do? Note that the built-in primary couldn’t withstand 220v directly. Wire two primary in series and the secondaries in series?

  13. Hi Seiu

    Congratulations on the second prize 🙂

    The built-in primary coil have too many windings for what we want to do. It is perfect for its application of having a voltage for CRT operation and where there is high coupling. Instead we use much fewer primary turns to get some proper current and energy dumped into the transformer.

    If you want to feed a high voltage transformer with 320VDC from just rectified mains, a offline driver is the name for that, you will need to do some proper calculations and make your own transformer from scratch. There is simply not enough window room on a flyback transformer to fit enough primary windings in at the power levels you want from using mains.

    The TL494 got built in dead time and you can use one of the two built in op-amps to add current limiting.

    Kind regards

  14. saattvik thourwal

    The driver you are using is used to drive tesla coils. No wonder the flyback died !!

  15. Hi saattvik

    I killed them all on purpose, not as much of a test of the transformers, but how sturdy the driver and bridge was in regard to driving transformers.

    Kind regards

  16. Hi Mads,
    I have build it, but suffer from the lack of parts, particular the driver IC. I used the C2383-A1013 pair for an alternative for the IC but that don’t seem to work out. The waveform on the scope is attached, can you give me some suggestion? I think increase the number of transistors in parallel with the output of the chip (and hence, the current capability?).
    I see you are using a MKP-type capacitor in the oscillation section of the IC, I’m using a ceramic capacitor with the same value, I wish to know if it have any negative effect here?
    Finally, what have happened to I’m trying to register, but I’ve tried dozens times but I got no email about exactly how to activate my account. And “send a email to forum at”??? How could I send such a email?? There’s no email address??

  17. Hi KhaSieu

    You should use the small transistors to drive a output stage of some TO247 MOSFETs to get a solid and sturdy GDT driver to replace the driver ICs.

    It is no problem to replace the MKP capacitor with ceramic in the oscillator, ceramic is really only inferior to MKP when it comes to higher currents.

    The email is written in “spam” protected syntax, what it means is “forum” @ “”, put together.

    Kind regards

  18. Hi Mads,
    I didn’t understand, so I need to use those TO-92 transistor to drive some TO247 fets, then the fets provides the driving power to the GDT and then the GDT drives the half bridge!?

  19. Hi Sieu

    Yes, looking at it simply you are just building amplifiers that are strong enough to drive the GDT.

    You should have no problems finding schematics of this via f.ex. google.

    Kind regards

  20. Hey there,
    I built this TL494 oscillator just as a test on a breadboard, with the pullup resistors at the output collectors as shown in the schematic, but found one problem about it. Using the output this way, obviously, shifts the output waveform by 180°. But, therefore, it also affects the built-in deadtime, which is now inverted, and instead of making sure the two outputs don’t overlap each other when switching, it does exactly the opposite! (see attachment drawing) I haven’t got to the stage of winding the GDT yet, i just hooked it up directly to the MOSFETs just to probe the outputs and see how it behaves. If i use a GDT, the problem can be solved just by reversing the secondaries as needed, but the problem is that the “safe” stage of the driver still suffers from a brief short circuit during the “not-dead-time” caused by inverted outputs. I decided to hook up the driving stage of the MOSFETs (just a couple of BD139s/140s) in between the IC emitters and GND, is this okay to do? Also i decided to remove the 1k resistor from the divider where you regulate PWM, that should not cause any problem either, or does it? My understanding is that at 0 Volts the duty cycle should be 50%.
    Thank you.

  21. Thank you very much for sharing this to the world. Greatly appreciated! Keep up the great teaching, professor!!!!!!!

  22. Hi Marek Fiala

    You are absolutely right, I might a error there and the output of the TL494 is actually short circuiting in what should have been its safe dead-time period.

    Which is also show from the measurements I did on my own driver here.

  23. I fixed the circuit quite a few months ago, it must have been back in February or March, right after you wrote here, I did new measurements BUT completely forgot about updating my website, documentation and schematics.

    I will update the schematic tomorrow.

    Here is the waveforms after the corrections.

    Kind regards

  24. Hi, any idea what duty cycle these things are driven at inside the TV? I know its about 15.7khz but at what duty cycle does the TV pulse its driver transistor?

    I’ve been searching the web but its getting harder and harder to find practical CRT information these days.

  25. Thanks Mads.

    Hey sorry to be a pain but have you ever done any primary coil tests with these flybacks? Like what gauge should we use and what type of cable?

    Personally I don’t think enameled magnet wire is very good since its very easy to scrape and short against the relatively low resistance core, I was thinking 16-18 AWG single strand hookup wire might be good since you can wind it tight without the gap inducing springiness of stranded wire.

    It’s hard to explain but I think multi stranded cable might cause more leakage inductance.

  26. Hi John

    I have used both enamelled, single strand solid copper and multi strand machine tool wire and to be honest I can not tell a difference when the sole purpose have been to make some nice high voltage arcs 🙂

    There is not doubt that a primary coil should take skin effect into consideration, but losses are not really that high at these relatively small power levels.

    Kind regards

  27. What would you consider acceptable primary coil losses? After some quick calculations it seems that its quite easy to get a few watts of I^R losses going on in the primary windings if you’ve got a few amps going through it. Would this be acceptable or should I be trying to get it down to below a watt?

    This would be for a passively coiled system and long arcing sessions.

    Is the skin effect a big problem at 50khz and below?

    Again sorry for all the questions but all this stuff is exciting for first timers like me.

  28. Hi John

    Do not worry about asking questions, we are all here to learn and with every question I learn more either form having to look into the issue or just retell something I know, it all helps 🙂

    You could make your own litz wire from multi-stranded enamelled copper wire, I got a table of wire sizes with a notation on close to 100% utility of the copper area:

    Kind regards

  29. Pingback: lol account |

  30. Brayan villabon


    Sorry if I bother you.

    please, how to connect the toroidal coil from the mazille driver and the control by tl494 through integrated MAX4420 that regulate the Mosfet.

    Thank you…

    sorry for the inconvenience.

    my email is

  31. Hi Brayan

    You are always welcome to ask questions get help 🙂

    Notice the secondary side of the GDT on the schematic, that is says A+, A-, B-, B+.

    It is important to get this phasing correct, as the A and B has to be switching opposite of each other in order to turn on the MOSFETs correctly, one at a time.

    You can also sign up at and show your project there and ask for help.

    Kind regards

  32. Hi Mads,
    It have been long time since I last built anything, really missed it but study make it hard to build projects.
    But now I have sometime so I decided not to built this driver (opps!) but instead I relied on the chip UC3845 to built another similar driver, but with protection features and feedback loop to regulate the output voltage .The reason why I choice the chip over TL494 is that that chip have current sense built in to the chip, and it use flyback topology, which is more resistance to short circuit (drawing arc) than forward converter.
    I think some of the following question are really stupid, but hope that you would still answer them:
    – Why this circuit actually works out? I mean, for example, it begin with very small current in the HV side, when you get the two electrode far apart. Then this works really as a forward converter. Next, you get the electrodes closer, which suddenly make a spark. This event shorts the hv winding, and this reflect back to the primary side, making the primary winding a short circuit. The current in whatever the high or low side now increase sharply, limited only by the leakage inductance, and resistance in that closed circuit. If you accidentally remove the air gap, which you decided not to, you risk destruction of the power Mosfet if the spark distance is low enough (this make the shorting happens more frequently) and if the duration is long, for example 10 sec. In my last driver built on this chip, the schematic was similar to yours and I didn’t keep the air gap, I placed the gap really close so a spark form right at the beginning. And yes the driver brew up right after the power was fed, I didn’t know why but it’s likely to be my fault not the reason above. But I really need someone to explain if the above is right or something must be corrected.
    – I’d like to inform that the UC3845 driver is ready, but I’m stuck at the final stage. I want to sense the output voltage and make a feedback loop but it’s easier to talk than to do something. The resistor voltage divider is well known and easy to implement on the secondary side to get a reading on the output voltage, but that would require a HV resistor, which isn’t cheap. I think that we could do something better?

  33. Hi Sieu

    You need your transformer to be designed for current limiting when it has to be abused for just creating lightning, which is a very low impedance load.

    You could make a HV sense resistor from a series chain of metal oxide resistors, to obtain the voltage rating needed. Put it in a tube with oil or pot it in epoxy.

    Kind regards

  34. Hi Mads, im trying to build your circuit to be used as a Co2 Laser power supply,
    the only information im missing is the GDT turn ratio and core type, i opened up my (now dead) laser psu and it has this exact IC as driver for 2 irfp450 mosfets and a flyback transformer, so my gess is that this circuit would work for my purpose.


  35. Eduardo Enriquez

    Hello Mads,
    is it posible to replace the Max4420 Ic´s with an H bridge ?

  36. Hi Eduardo Enriquez

    Yes, since there is no enable feature on these drivers, you can substitute it with a MOSFET output stage instead.

    Kind regards

  37. Eduardo Enriquez

    i was thinking on using transistor h bridge, also for testing is it possible to drive the GDT directly from the Tl494 ?

  38. Hi Eduardo Enriquez

    I would recommend a MOSFET bridge to have fast turn-on and high current capabilities. It does depend on what you are driving with the GDT.

    The TL494 can deliver 200-250 mA on the transistor collector output, so that is plenty to test with, but might not give as sharp edge on the gate waveform.

    Kind regards

  39. Eduardo Enriquez

    Hello Mads, i managed to get MC34152 instead of the two MAX4420,
    it worked, at least untill i changed the frequency adjustment pot, then my MC34152 died,
    any toughts on what might have happenned ???
    for testing im using a 12v psu on the mosfets and a separate 12v supply for the logic.

  40. Hi Eduardo Enriquez

    From the datasheet ( ):

    High frequency printed circuit layout techniques are imperative to prevent excessive output ringing and overshoot. Do not attempt to construct the driver circuit on wire−wrap or plug−in prototype boards. When driving large capacitive loads, the printed circuit board must contain a low inductance ground plane to minimize the voltage spikes induced by the high ground ripple currents.
    All high current loops should be kept as short as possible using heavy copper runs to provide a low impedance high frequency path. For optimum drive performance, it is recommended that the initial circuit design contains dual power supply bypass capacitors connected with short leads as close to the VCC pin and ground as the layout will permit. Suggested capacitors are
    a low inductance 0.1 F ceramic in parallel with a 4.7 F tantalum.
    Additional bypass capacitors may be required depending upon Drive Output loading and circuit layout. Proper printed circuit board layout is extremely critical and cannot be over emphasized.

    Maybe you did also overload it and it died to heat dissipation?

    Kind regards

  41. Trying to drive a TV flyback at over 30 khz or so is sort of a losing battle. I imagine the duty cycle needs to be cranked up closer to 75% to see good arcs at an input voltage closer to 20v. You can get longer arcs by just dropping the frequency down to about 20khz and finding a suitable capacitor to ring with the primary. At under 40% duty it should spit great arcs from around 12-20v. Need 5A or greater supply.

  42. Pingback: Fabrication d’un Inverter IGBT – ElectroXa

  43. Hi Mads
    Perhaps this is a silly question but, would it be possible to use the TL494 flyback driver to drive
    the SSTCII Tesla Coil but using the GDT as described in the SSTC driver circuit
    Instead of audio modulating the UCC37321 / UC37322 or the MAX 4220’s pin3, would it be possible to reconfigure the TL494 and add audio input to pins 2 and 4. I am not quite sure of the purpose of R10 if this modification were possible
    As I have already built the SSTC Bridge (22-10-2009) it seems that it may be possible to use that bridge in place of the bridge as described in this article.
    I hope that this makes sense.

    Kind regards


  44. Hi Phil

    Yes you can drive a SSTC with this driver, but you need to adjust it to the changing resonant frequency of the secondary coil. The secondary coil drop in resonant frequency when its being loaded down by a spark. So the tuning point will not stay the same.

    You could look into SSTCs with primary circuit feedback and a manually adjusted start-up oscillator for a similar circuit, but where it has a more powerful feedback from the CT on the primary wire, that “overwrites” the signal from the manually adjusted startup oscillator.

    Kind regards

  45. Hi Mads

    Thank you for your reply.
    I shall investigate your suggestions and see what I can come up with.

    Once again, many thanks

    Kind regards

  46. Hi Mad, I like your projects and I would like to ask you a question ?: In this circuit that diodes D3 and D4 went up, they are connected the other way around I think not?

  47. Hi Adrian

    A ultra-fast external diodes that is mounted with same polarity (as in my schematic) as the internal body diode of the MOSFET is to avoid excessive conduction losses in the slow body diode. This is a free-wheeling or reverse voltage blocking diode.

    The schematic you show with external diodes in opposite polarity of the body diode is properly a mistake? Where did you find this schematic?

    Kind regards

  48. Hello Mads, thanks for answering me, I found the scheme a few comments above, someone published it, then they are wrongly connected, right?

  49. Pingback: TL494 Flyback Driver

  50. Hi, if using IRFP460 FETs, HER308 protection diodes D1 & D2 will be enough for powers <=1000W ?

  51. Hi Vasilij

    It depends on your load and the mains voltage that you can apply to it. With f.ex. 10 turns primary on a flyback transfer, you can not get much higher than 150V before its grossly overloaded and will flashover.

    So lets say that you can push your load up to 320VDC (rectified 230VAC mains), then you could properly push those 3A diodes to around 960 Watt. I think you should choose bigger ones or at least due some temperature rise tests, where you watch the temperature rise of the diodes closely, as current draw will be larger at lower voltages, on low impedance loads.

    Kind regards

  52. Hi friend,I want to use this make a plasma speaker, but I don’t know how to add the signal, could u pls teach me? Thank u so much.

  53. Hello Mads. I have a question about induction heating if this is already been answered somewhere else I’m sorry for asking. I have a 5 KW zvs induction heater it works great no problems. I have recently built an induction heater with a full Bridge of igbts with a current Transformer for feedback it also works great. My question is why does my zvs only draw 8 in with no load and up to 100 amps with a load and the one with the full Bridge draws up to 40 amps with no load and comes down all the way to 4 amps as I am inserting a load. I forgot to mention the one with the full bridge I’m using a coupling Transformer. As I stated before both of these work great I just don’t understand why one draws very little current with no load and the other one draws Max current with no load. I understand zero voltage switching. I thought with my feedback Transformer not full Bridge would also be switching at zero voltage. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Thank you Bart

  54. Hi Bart
    Just from your short description, it sounds like you have circulating current from self resonance of the circuit. 40A empty and only 4A with load, sounds like you need to adjust the inverter frequency to be optimal for the load inserted. Then you might see it drop in no load condition.
    Kind regards

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

The maximum upload file size: 10 MB. You can upload: image, document, spreadsheet, text, archive, other. Drop file here

Scroll to Top