Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove, measurements (part 2)

Youtube video part 2 of 5 The second part of the series of maybe 5 chapters on tearing down and hacking a IKEA 2000 Watt …

Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove, teardown (part 1)

The first part of a series of maybe 5 chapters on tearing down and hacking a IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove is now online. Click …

Hacking IKEA 2kW induction hob

Introduction

IKEA had their single stand alone induction stove on sale for 40 Euro and that was cheap enough to buy it only to take it apart and possibly destroy it during experiments.

Perhabs this could be a quick and cheap jump into a 2 kW induction heater for DIY purposes.

 

Safety

WARNING!: Working with electricity is dangerous, all information found on my site is for educational purpose and I accept no responsibility for others actions using the information found on this site.

Read this document about safety! http://www.pupman.com/safety.htm

 

Considerations

Cheap and simple circuits like these, that run from 230 VAC mains often use a sketchy power supply for the logic circuit, the ground is often floating and could be several hundred Volt away from a true ground. This makes it risk filled to interface with and measure on without a differential probe.

I expect to explode some part of this induction stove, more than once.

The primary / work coil in a quasi-resonant circuit like this is live at full resonant voltage! Short-circuit of the coil or touching it while it is running can be fatal to both yourself and the circuit!

 

Specifications

Induction zone size 185 mm diameter
Maximum input current 8.5 Ampere
Maximum total effect 2000 Watt
Voltage 220 – 240 Volt
Width 30 cm
Depth 38.5 cm
Height 5.4 cm
Weight 3.00 kg

 

What is in the box and a look at the electronics? (Part 1 of 5)

The box is plain, simple and white with a black stencil of the induction stove on it. The IKEA name for the product is TILLREDA and means “to prepare a meal”.

The control of the induction stove is straight forward. There is a children lock, on/off, pause and intensity buttons. The stove also has temperature protection right in the centre of the work coil.

Overall impression of the inside is that it is a very cheap and simple design with a microcontroller, logic power supply and a single switch inverter topology using a IGBT.

The brand name on boards and components are HIGHWAY, which is from the Chinese company Guangdong Highway Electronic Technology Co., Ltd.

In the following table is the manufacturers own “datasheet” for the MCU found in the IKEA induction hob. Click the model number for their own page, I also corrected the spelling errors and I think it is worth mentioning that they advertise their product specifically as Imported chip with stable performance.

Model: HIGHWAY09A
1. 16DIP package, OTP type chip
2. 16 pins with single-chip touch. Apply for all induction cookers.
3. Imported chip with stable performance
4. Program Memory:4K x16
5. Data Memory:160 x 8
6. Up to 4channels 12-bit resolution A/D converter
7. Program can not be erased and not be re-written

A few searches quickly gave me the idea that Holtek could be the true manufacturer of the microcontroller, as these are used extensively in products from China and the above specifications also pointed me in that direction.

I have spent hours browsing through the product catalogues of Holtek Semiconductor Inc. and the closest I ever got to find a microcontroller with all the above specifications was the HT46R51A, but the pinout does not match 100%, but very close, so far my conclusion on this IC is that its a older product or simply a custom pinout IC made specifically for Highway.

The IGBT is also of HIGHWAY brand and has some of the same funny features, no datasheets or curves are needed if the transistor can take a harder beating with a hammer than Fairchild or Siemens…

Model: HIGHWAY 20A1350V1 IGBT
1. Its temperature rise is the same as Siemens IGBT’s.
2. Withstand voltage 1350V.
3. 1 pcs IGBT is enough for 2500w machine.
4. Impact resistance is stronger than Fairchild 25A and 20A Siemens
5. The price is the most competitive.

It is also possible to get a 2500 Watt version at almost the same price from Alibaba: https://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/2014-2500W-small-size-mini-induction_1863654875.html

 

Measurements of inverter voltage, primary current and gate drive (Part 2 of 5)

Test setup is compromised of the following 3 instruments connected to a Rigol DS1054Z oscilloscope.
Inverter output voltage, measured across the work coil, is done with a 1300V Tektronix P5200 differential probe. 250V/div on the oscilloscope.
LC circuit current is measured between the work coil and resonant capacitor with a Pearson electronics model 110 current monitor. 20A/div.
Gate drive waveform is measured between Gate and Emitter with a two-channel Tektronix A6909 isolator. 10V/div.

Quasi-resonant inverter topology
The output power of the inverter can be controlled by a Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM) with fixed off-time and variable on-time. The waveform of the resonant voltage changes whenever DC-LINK becomes LOW or there is any change in load impedance. The amplitude of DC-LINK (VDC) ranges from zero to maximum as the capacitor has a small capacity.

When observing the waveforms of the current and voltage in the resonant circuit, it can at first be very confusing as the measured amplitude seems to follow the trigger level, so it is actually easy to lock on to a stable signal, but that does not tell the whole story. With the horizontal time base at 10 us/div where the single switching can be observed, it is impossible to discover what the waveform actually looks like at 2 ms/div horizontal time base, here it can be seen that all power is drawn within the full-wave rectified mains 100 Hz envelope.

Equivalent of circuit

Single quasi-resonant cycle analysis
Mode I: t0-t1
The IGBT is turned off at t0. VCE is gradually increased by the capacitor (Cr) to become DC-LINK (VDC) at t1. Even when the IGBT is turned off at t0, the current keeps increasing to reach its peak at t1, when VCE becomes equal to VDC. At this point, the energy stored in the inductor begins to be transferred to the capacitor.

Mode II: t1-t4
As VCE gets higher than VDC after t1, the current is decreased and reaches zero at t2, while the resonant voltage reaches its maximum level. This is also the point where the transfer of the energy, stored in the inductor, to the capacitor is completed. The peak level of the resonant voltage has a direct relationship with the on-time of the IGBT (Mode IV: t5-t6). After t2, the capacitor starts discharging the energy to the inductor, which causes the resonant voltage to decrease and reach its minimum level at t3, i.e. VCE=VDC. Passing t3, the resonant current increases as VCE<VDC and the discharge is completed at t4.

Mode III: t4-t5
At t4, VCE becomes zero and the anti-parallel diode, D1, turns on naturally. Since the resonant current is flowing through D1, the voltage drop of the IGBT remains zero. Therefore, Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) turn-on can be achieved by turning on the IGBT in this mode.

Mode IV: t5-t6
At t5, the current direction changes and flows through the inductor. Therefore the inductor starts to store the energy. At t6, the IGBT is turned off, returning to Mode I.

Pulse Frequency Modulation
Divided by the red line we have power mode 5 at the bottom and power mode 9 at the top.
It can be observed that the off-time of the purple gate drive signal is identical in both power modes, so this pulse frequency modulator operates with fixed off time.
In quasi-resonant switching, the device does not have a fixed switching frequency, which is also clear from looking at the two waveforms, due to the longer on-time at high power, the resonant frequency is lower. The microcontroller waits for one of the negative half-cycles in the collector voltage and then switches the IGBT on.

The time between IGBT turn-off and the first negative half-cycle is fixed by the resonant frequency. The time between IGBT turn-on and turn-off is set by the microcontroller.
The narrow frequency span from 22 to 25 kHz does not pose any significant problems in designing the magnetic components, but it is enough to get the resonant current to rise up the maximum power level that can be drawn from a regular mains outlet.

 

Hacking the control loops of the MCU (Part 3 of 5)

Check back later for updates.

 

Using it as a induction heater (Part 5 of 5)

Check back later for updates.

 

Using it as a Tesla coil (Part 5 of 5)

Check back later for updates.

 

Conclusion

Part 1: It is a cheap kitchen appliance and it is cheap for a reason. It is made from a absolutely minimum of parts with a custom/Chinese controller that is most likely a programmed microcontroller.

 

References

Royer induction heater

Published 18. January 2013. Updated 21. March 2019.

Introduction

The Mazilli ZVS flyback driver is well-known throughout the high voltage community for its simplicity and ability to deliver 20-50 kV at high currents for a flyback transformer.

About one and a half year ago, Marko from 4hv.org gave the circuit a comeback with it converted to a simple induction heater.

I build the circuit as a proof of concept model in order to show it to my father that would like to start doing black smith work on small knifes.

To explore all my induction heaters, including the Chinese 1800 Watt induction heater, check out my youtube playlist for all induction heater related projects: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1tg3mQL7lQ&list=PLw4xMO1xCMSUOj19zUmFE2-a2lcFBuzX_

 

Safety

WARNING!: Working with electricity is dangerous, all information found on my site is for educational purpose and I accept no responsibility for others actions using the information found on this site.

Read this document about safety! http://www.pupman.com/safety.htm

 

Considerations

The MOSFETs used need a voltage rating about 4 times higher than the supply voltage and a on-resistance below 150 mΩ. In ZVS operation the switches see a voltage that is π times input voltage, so 4 times rating of input voltage leaves some head room for playing it safe.

If supply voltage gets over 40 VDC, consider using resistors between 470R-800R for the gates. Supply voltage needs to be minimum 12 VDC, lower than 470R gate resistors can be used in that case, if supply voltage dips under 10 VDC, there is a risk of MOSFETs failing from overheating by working only in the linear region or short circuit if one of them stops switching.

Supply voltage should not exceed 60 VDC, as this is very close to 200 VDC across the MOSFET. The internal construction of MOSFETs with a higher voltage rating makes them unsuitable for use in a self oscillating circuit like this Royer oscillator.

A MMC is made from 27 capacitors to avoid excessive heating in a single capacitor. The capacitors will still heat as massive current flows between the tank and work coil. To get a good result, a large tank capacitance is needed, if a capacitance lower than 4 uF is used, results might be disappointing. It is strongly advised to use a capacitor with made from polypropylene (MKP) or similar that can handle large RMS currents, it might even be necessary to water cool the capacitor too. A MMC as the one I use here can only withstand short run times and will even then heat up.

The value of the inductors are advised to be between 45 to 200 uH and depending on core material the number of turns varies a lot, use a LCR meter to check the values.

Water cooling of the work coil is a must! Even at just small runs with moderate power input as the ones I have conducted, the work coil would take damage from heat.

 

Specifications

Voltage supply 35 VDC smoothed with 40000 uF
MMC 3 uF from 9 in parallel strings of 3x 2 275 VAC MKP X2 capacitors in series.
Power consumption 650 Watt.
Best result Between red hot and white hot M10x20mm bolt

 

Schematic

 

Construction

17th January 2013

I succeeded in putting the entire setup together from parts I have salvaged from old equipment, only the MOSFETs was bought new and used before.

The transformer takes 230 VAC in for 32 VAC out, properly around 700 VA transformer estimated from the core size. It is rectified with a 25 A bridge rectifier smoothed with 40000 uF capacitance from four electrolytic capacitors 70 VDC / 10000 uF each.

The inductors are made from ferrite transformer cores from old power supplies. 14 turns of 1,5 mm^2 gave approximately 130 uH inductance.

Two IRFP250N MOSFETs mounted on each their fairly small heat sink, but big enough for the circuit to run for a couple of minutes and only get a little above hand warm. The heat sinks are glued together with a piece of acrylic plastic in-between to insure electrical isolation between the two heat sinks.

The work coil is made from 5 turns of 8 mm copper tubing, giving approximately 0,477 uH. The MMC consists of 9 parallel strings of 3 in series Rifa 1 uF / 275 VAC MKP X2 capacitors for 3 uF. This gives a resonant frequency calculated to about 133 kHz.

Measurements during a run of heating a M10x20 mm bolt at 33 VDC in, 260 VAC at 2.5 A input into transformer.

Resonant frequency is measured to 106 kHz. The measured frequency is different from the calculated as the work piece will influence on the coils electromagnetic properties.

In the following oscilloscope screenshot:

Yellow: Inverter current, here measured to 10 Ampere.

Blue: Inverter voltage, here measured to 100 Volt.

In the following oscilloscope screenshot:

Yellow: Tank current, here measured to 200 Ampere.

Blue: Tank voltage, here measured to 100 Volt.

Three pieces of metal heated to what is possible with input voltage of 35 VDC.

 

Conclusion

A good and reliable oscillator as long as supply voltage is kept within safe area of operation for the MOSFETs and only short run times are used unless there is used good components and water cooling on work coil, MOSFETs and capacitors.

Further improvements in use as a heater / melter would be a higher supply voltage.

 

Demonstration

Royer induction heater – first test

This is the first test run of a royer induction heater running at 650 Watt, there is heavy voltage sag on the DC supply. The …