Kone elevator 45 kW motor drive teardown

This is a Kone KM997160 variable frequency motor drive that is developed and used for elevators. 

Kone has a long history of their own motor drives that came in more or less atypical enclosures compared to other variable frequency drives. With this KDM model, they do however take the same form as many other drives by other manufacturers, which could lead to the assumption that these are made by a contractor and are just controlled by Kone’s own software and safety systems.

In the following pictures we see the complete unit that is about 1 meter tall and weighs somewhere around 70-80 kg. Full plastic front without any form of interactive interface or display, just 3 status LEDs that shows power, error and running.

From the specifications sticker on the side, we get the following information:

Input: 400V, 3~AC, 50-60Hz, 71A

Output: 0-Uin, 3~AC, 0-250Hz, 90A

Power: 45kW: 400V / 60HP: 400V

Taking a look under the hood we first see the DC bus capacitors at the top, the gate drive control board and underneath the black plastic cover we find the CPU.

The 4 identical metal plates that can be seen is the mounting plates for the SKiiP IGBT modules. The 6 red boxes with wires going through is the current transformers and the wires with yellow cable shoes goes to the chokes underneath the power electronics.

Two of the IGBT modules are used for AC to DC input stage with active power factor correction. The last two IGBT modules are used for outputting the variable frequency supply for the motor. The two large capacitors at the top are for the DC link.

Altera Max II EPM240/G/Z  is a low cost CPLD with 240 logic elements, 80 user defined I/O and 8kb of memory available at a internal clock frequency rate up to 300 MHz.

Atmel AT91SAM9260 ARM-based Embedded MPU. 180 MHz ARM processor with 8 KBytes Data Cache and 8 KBytes Instruction Cache. 

Semikron SKiiP 39AC126V2 IGBT module, a 3 phase bridge inverter module developed specifically for use in motor drives up to 45 kVA / 30 kW. Two of these modules are used in parallel or interleaved in this motor drive to reach its rating for a 45 kW motor.

It is a 1200 VDC module with a continues rated current at 157 Ampere, with pulsed currents up to 280 Ampere. A very fast module with a combined switching on/off time of only 720 ns. The SKiiP packages are however a pain in the ass to salvage from equipment where they are stuck to the heat sink through sticky compounds. When the screw, holding the IGBT and contact points in place, is removed, then there is only the thin aluminium bonding wires keep the silicon chips together with the enclosure, and these breaks very easily as if can be seen in the pictures.

The power factor correction choke and output chokes from Epcos are all mounted in a tray and have been wholecasted in blue epoxy, which pretty much makes it impossible to salvage for use in something else and not even the cores are possible to get free in one piece. The filter assembly is rated for 480V at 76A.

The two DC link capacitors 70CPE00150 from Kemet at each at 700 uF and 800 VDC. I have not been able to find a datasheet for these, but a guess from their physical size compared to other Kemet DC link capacitors and the ratings of this motor drive, they are properly good for about 50 A RMS each.

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Kaizer DRSSTC IV – a high impedance primary circuit experiment

A new article has been added that describes the thoughts, design, construction and test of a very high impedance primary circuit QCW DRSSTC, where the voltage ramp is coming straight from half wave rectified mains supply and a mains synced interrupter is used to trigger at the right interval.

The article covers the fall pits and strange behaviour of Tesla coils driven in this manner.

The project is highly experimental and the results were not as satisfying as expected, but problems with switching transients was a much bigger issues than initially thought of.

Read it all, see all the pictures and view all the videos at: http://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/tesla-coils/kaizer-drsstc-iv/

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A new dedicated high voltage forum!

Hello everyone!

The comment sections on my website have grown long with questions, advices and solutions. So I have expanded the site with a brand new forum, on a dedicated domain.

We are a group of seasoned high voltage and electronics enthusiasts that have created a new high voltage forum and community. A modern forum software with all the possibilities there lie within a modern frame work like that.

I am hereby inviting you all and hope to see threads with your questions, your Tesla coils, your projects or what kind of things you have to write about in the forums designated categories.

This is a good chance to be among the first and help build a vital community where new people feel welcome, get help, learn and in the end become those that help others.

Join us at http://www.highvoltageforum.net

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Teardown video of HP SureStore DLT 818 tape backup station

The HP SureStore E DLT Autoloader 818 is a cost-effective high-performance tape storage solution. This system comes equipped with a DLT8000 drive, which transfers data at up to 12 MB per second (compressed), allowing servers to be backed up or restored in a matter of hours. HP libraries feature automated operation through software to eliminate the possibility of missed backups. Simply schedule backups for a convenient time and let the HP DLT8000 library do the rest, using best-in-class storage management software to support unattended “lights-out” operation. HP DLT autoloaders are designed for simplicity, both for users and system integrators. They feature a front-panel display for diagnostics and status reporting, and they use removable six-slot cartridge magazines for quick, easy media loading. The autoloaders include proven HP mechanisms and HP-tested DLTtape media for high uptime levels and reliable operation. Choose either the standalone deskside configuration, or mount up to two libraries side-by-side in a 19-inch rack.

Product Description HP SureStore DLT Autoloader 818 – tape autoloader – DLT – SCSI
Device Type Tape autoloader – DLT
Recording Standard DLT8000
Enclosure Type External
Interface Type SCSI
Total Storage Capacity 320 GB (native) / 640 GB (compressed)
Removable Media Capacity 8
Supported Tape Drives DLT
Dimensions (WxDxH) 22.1 cm x 55.9 cm x 17.7 cm
Weight 18.6 kg
Storage Removable DLT
Storage Removable Capacity 40 GB (native) / 80 GB (compressed)
Supported Tape Cartridges (Read and Write) DLT
Data Transfer Rate (native) 6 MBps ( 21.1 GBph )
Data Transfer Rate (compressed) 12 MBps ( 42.2 GBph )
Power AC 110/220 V ( 50/60 Hz )
Manufacturer Warranty 3 years warranty


Device Type Tape autoloader – DLT
Recording Standard DLT8000
Enclosure Type External
Interface Type SCSI
Total Storage Capacity 320 GB (native) / 640 GB (compressed)
Removable Media Capacity 8
Supported Tape Drives DLT
Built-in Devices Status LCD
Enclosure Colour White
Width 22.1 cm
Depth 55.9 cm
Height 17.7 cm
Weight 18.6 kg


Type DLT
Capacity 40 GB (native) / 80 GB (compressed)
Supported Tape Cartridges (Read and Write) DLT
Recording Standard DLT8000
Data Transfer Rate (native) 6 MBps ( 21.1 GBph )
Data Transfer Rate (compressed) 12 MBps ( 42.2 GBph )
Average Seek / Access Time 60 sec


Interfaces 1 x storage – Fast Wide SCSI – 68 PIN VHDCI (Mini-Centronics)
Connections 1 x storage – Fast Wide SCSI – 68 PIN VHDCI (Mini-Centronics)


Media Included Qty 6
Cables Included 2 x SCSI cable
1 x SCSI terminator
MTBF 200,000 hour(s)
Package Type Retail


Type Power supply
Voltage Required AC 110/220 V ( 50/60 Hz )
Power Consumption Operational 150 Watt


Software Included Drivers & Utilities


Service & Support 3 years warranty
Service & Support Details Limited warranty – parts and labour – 3 years – on-site


Min Operating Temperature 10 °C
Max Operating Temperature 40 °C
Humidity Range Operating 20 – 80%
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Mysterious failure of a Siemens mini circuit breaker C6A (5SY41)

From one day to another this mini circuit breaker stopped working, I had been using it wrongly as a on/off switch and was wondering if there was a mechanism inside to disable it after too many on/off switches, as MCBs are only rated for a finite number of operations.

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Teardown video of Eaton PowerWare 30 kVA UPS

Here is a video from taking apart 3 UPS units from Eaton PowerWare, these are 30 kVA units that was previously described in pictures and text in one of my earlier teardown articles: http://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/electronics/teardown-eaton-powerware-30-kva-ups/ 

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Teleste AC2000, teardown of a 862 MHz cable TV amplifier

This Teleste AC2000 is a cable TV amplifier that is configurable through different insert jumpers for setting up attenuation/equalization, diplex filters, return amplifier or a transponder making it remote controllable.  This is a dual 39 dB amplifier in the range from 5 to 862 MHz which enables it of delivering 110 channels. 

This particular amplifier is set up for one input, a bypass for next amplifier in the chain and two outputs. There is no transponder installed.

These small amplifiers are used in houses where it is not practical to use a receiving antenna to get the signal from the broadcast headend transmitter. They are called a “service drop”

Instead CATV is used, short for community antenna TV, a large receiving antenna is used, a cable connection runs out to every house in the neighborhood and each house has one of these amplifiers. The return path amplifier can also send some of the signal back into the line to keep the signal good enough for the next house.

It is installed in a weather proof enclosure meant for outdoor wall installation where it is most practical to have the antenna input cable come up from the ground and from there on route cables into houses and apartments.

The internal power supply has a input voltage range from 27 to 65 VAC/35 to 90 VDC and has two output voltages. 24 VDC at 1400 mA maximum and 12 VDC at 900 mA maximum. 

The manufacturer specifications of this cable TV amplifier

  • 2-3 outputs by internal splitting
  • Spectrum analyser function
  • Plug-in module adjustments
  • Fixed station memory for electrical identification
  • Electrical gain & slope control modules
  • Optional high performance return amplifier
  • Downstream signal path 85…862 MHz (110 channels)
  • Input attenuator control range 20 dB
  • Input equaliser control range 25 dB
  • Mid-stage slope 8 dB
  • Flatness ± 0.4 dB
  • Upstream signal path 5…65 MHz

If transponder was installed:

  • US ingress monitoring
  • Return path ingress switches ON/ -6 dB / OFF control
  • 65 VAC voltage measurement
  • Local DC voltages, 12 V and 24 V
  • Temperature measurement
  • Gain and slope controlling in ALSC mode
  • Individual channel level measurement (AC6951)
  • Spectrum analyzer function
  • Lid status monitoring
  • Local connection indication at server
  • Configuration data stored in main board eeprom (station memory)

Attenuators, for all TVs manufactured after 1995, the signal strength at the TV should be between -10 dB and +15 dB, this is achieved with 20 dB range on inserts in this amplifier.

Equalizer or also called slope, is the difference in signal strength between the highest and lowest channels. This is also handled with inserts in a 25 dB range for input and 8 dB for mid-stage. To get a frequency response of ± 0.4 dB, also called flatness.

Attenuators and equalizer inserts are for the most a plastic container with the following content, a gold plated 3-legged 2-3 resistor setup.

A diplexer is a passive device that implements frequency-domain multiplexing. Two ports (e.g., L and H) are multiplexed onto a third port (e.g., S). The signals on ports L and H occupy disjoint frequency bands. Consequently, the signals on L and H can coexist on port S without interfering with each other.

The heart of this box is the CATV amplifier modules which was the popular choice of silicon in amplifiers of this type from the 1990’s.

Features of these hybrid amplifier modules for CATV systems operating over a frequency range of 40 to 450 MHz at a voltage supply of +24 V and intended for use as a line-extender.

  • Excellent linearity
  • Extremely low noise
  • Silicon nitride passivation
  • Rugged construction
  • TiPtAu metallized crystals

 The internal construction of the hybrid amplifier module can be seen below.

Close-up of the six transistors in the module.

Video with explanation of the different parts while the amplifier is being taken apart.

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Kone elevator control/power electronics panel teardown

This is a Kone Elevator control and power electronics panel dated around 1999-2000 according to stickers and test marks. It does not appear to have had a user interface, unless that was connected to the RS232 port.

The front reveals a control board with a -12 VDC, GND and +12 VDC power supply at the top, used primarily for the gate drive of the IGBT module and rest of the logic runs on +5 VDC.

The controllers heart is the Intel N80C196KC20 microcontroller, known as the “80196” family of microcontrollers, it was discontinued by Intel in 2007 without any newer replacement parts available. It is a 16-bit 20 MHz microcontroller which have two ST M27C1000 8x 256 KB EEPROMs connected. One with the main program and the other is marked in the PCB to have a test program. To store data while the controller is powered off there is a ST M48Z35Y ZEROPOWERRAM which is 256 KB of SRAM, besides the SRAM module there is a voltage sense and switching circuitry along with a lithium battery in the package.

There is a large pin-header for connecting a flat cable with all peripheral circuits like buttons, level indicators, sensors and safety monitoring devices. There is a funny, yet a little freightening, push button switch on the board that says “Full power”, along with other texts that refer to “Offset test”, “Record out” or “Test program”

To control the phase angles of the motor there are three TLC 8-bit DACs which get their digital signal from the microcontroller and delivers a variable phase angle signal to the IGBT driver board.

The heart of the power electronics is a 3 phase Eupec BSM50GD120 IGBT module which is rated for 50 Ampere at 1200 VDC. The DC bus filtering is two RIFA 1000 uF / 350 VDC electrolytic capacitors. The output from the drive goes through 3 ring core inductors before going to the motor connection terminals.

Mains input goes through a 3 phase filter before it goes to IXYS 3 phase rectifier and brake chopper module protected with MOVs. There is a separate brake module that dumps energy from the motor to two power resistors.

There is two heavy shielded cables going off the PCB with a DC+ and brake engage wires to the large mechanical brake on the lift itself to lock it into place when not moving.

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SSTC and DRSSTC musical modulator

Since Martin from ctc-labs.de decided to close down his website, which was all written in German, I asked him for permission to translate and publish some of his content to keep it online and public for others to use.

So here is the translated article about his small and simple analog circuit that can be use to make a Tesla coil play music. Using just a op-amp and a 555 timer it is possible to recreate the effect from expensive MIDI modulators by instead just using a analog signal. This method is ofcause not as precise as with digitally microcontroller based MIDI interrupters.

Read the full article with illustrations and schematics and learn how to play music with your Tesla coil.


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Kaizer DRSSTC III update #7 – Show and tell

While we had the box open for removing the real-time current control, as you can see in the previous post, I did a walk through of how the coil is put together and what parts have been used.

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