5kJ capacitor bank fired at 2kJ charge

Second charge experiment with the bank of 35 electrolytic capacitors connected in series. The bank did however not get charged to more than 50% of its maximum holding charge, properly due to too weak power supply. More results will follow when a new power supply have been made and tested.

All discussion about this bank can be found on the forum: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=25.msg869;topicseen#new

The first test video can be seen at: http://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/highvoltage/5kj-capacitor-bank-1-5kj-bang-test-at-end/

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MIDI modulator for DRSSTCs

I have had the Loneoceans midi2 controller for a while, just never got around to put it together, so now I finally have it boxed up, you can see how that was done here: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=114.0

If you want your own MIDI controller, you can buy it here: http://loneoceans.com/labs/sales/midi2/.

Here are 4 videos I recorded while testing the MIDI functionality of the controller. They were all played back on the Kaizer DRSSTC II which is a mini coil resonating at ~300 kHz, so it will have a preference for high notes and not so much for the bass.

Ievan Polkka

The Imperial March

Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy

Scooter – Friends

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Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove, measurements (part 2)

Youtube video part 2 of 5

The second part of the series of maybe 5 chapters on tearing down and hacking a IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove is now published. Click the box below to read the whole article and get all the details.

Hacking IKEA 2kW induction hob

Highvoltageforum.net thread: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=104.0

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Hacking the IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove, teardown (part 1)

The first part of a series of maybe 5 chapters on tearing down and hacking a IKEA 2000 Watt induction stove is now online. Click the box below to read the whole article and get all the details.

Hacking IKEA 2kW induction hob

Highvoltageforum.net thread: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=104.0

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New online calculator: Snubber capacitor calculator

Calculate the needed snubber capacitance in order to protect your inverters IGBT/MOSFETs from too high swithcing transients, depending on your busbar layout and stray inductance.

Try the new online calculator at: http://kaizerpowerelectronics.dk/calculators/snubber-capacitor-calculator/

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Ericsson Radio Base Station RBS6000 teardown

The RBS 6201 two radio shelves can be equipped with virtually any combination of GSM, WCDMA and LTE, which are available for all common frequencies.

A single radio shelf can provide up to 3×8 GSM or 3×4 MIMO WCDMA or 3×20 MHz MIMO LTE or a combination of above standards.

The RUS supports 60 Watt output power for any standard with a bandwidth of up to 20 MHz. Each unit is capable of handling four cell carriers in both downlink and uplink. Multiple RU can be combined to create various single- or dualband configurations with 1-6 sectors and 1-4 carriers.

The RBS application software is distributed over several processors using the interprocessor communication offered by the platform. The main processors of the
RBS 6000 cooperate to form a main processor cluster (MPC) that executes most of the
control software. The processors that make up the MPC are equal in terms of control —
that is, there are no master-slave relationships between them. However, if one of the processors fails, the program execution is moved to another main processor in the
MPC. For control, most boards are equipped with a board processor (BP). Those units
that do not contain a board processor are monitored by other units.

The following 25 minute video shows the teardown step by step with explanations, high resolution pictures of content is in the last part of the video and also further down this post.

The system specific controllers are marked in the following pictures, these are handling system monitoring, telecommunication protocol decoding and encoding.

The system monitor CPU is the Ericsson ROP 101 1190/2 “AUC” which is a part of the earlier mentioned MPC. The Xilinx Virtex5 XC5VLX85T is a 550 MHz FPGA that either handles some system monitoring or the bus network interface.

The Ericsson ASIC ROP 101 089/3 “WARP 1” is at a best guess the encoding processors as they sit next to the analogue to digital converters described in the receiver part below.

The Altera Stratix III EP3SL150F780I3N is a 800 MHz FPGA that at a best guess is the decoding processor as it sit next to the digital to analogue converters described in the transmit part below.

Looking at the part of the circuit board that was marked receive in the above pictures, we can in the following pictures see the analogue signal from the diplexer is the input to the two golden connectors.

The main signal goes through the Anaren Xinger 1P603S hybrid coupler and best guess is that the phase shifted signal is distributed on to the smaller couplers and from there to the different signal monitoring parts of the circuits. The Analog Devices OP747 is a precision micro power op-amp and the Maxim MAX1154 is a 10 channel 10-bit system monitor.

The signal goes from the Anaren Xinger 1P603S to the Maxim MAX19997 Dual 2.3 – 2.7 GHz down-conversion mixer, which from the shielded Panasonic PA9F18 above it which is a ADF4153 local oscillator running at around 3 GHz, does a down-conversion from 2.6 GHz to 400 MHz according to the following formula. Intermediate frequency (400 MHz) = Local oscillator (3000 MHz) – RF signal (2600 MHz).

Sequencing and sampling is handled by the Analog devices ICs ADF4002 which is a 400 MHz bandwidth phase detector / frequency synthesizer and the AD9510 which is a 1.2 GHz clock distribution sequencer.

The signal is now split into two isolated lines through the TriQuint 856771 which is a 358.4 MHz SAW filter. SAW is short for surface acoustic wave and is basically two transducers on each their side of a piezoelectric crystal. The input transducer will make the crystal vibrate and the output transducer will generate a output from the vibrations, this is highly efficient at up to 99.99%.

The signal is fed from the SAW filters to a Skyworks SKY73084 300-500 MHz downconversion mixer which have the local oscillator right to it, but I am unsure of the frequency, but a guess is down to 20 MHz which is the advertised data bandwidth of the RBS6000 system.

Through unknown ICs and a passive filter the signal is now fed to the analogue to digital converters, the two Linear Technology LTC2208 ADC which are 16- bit and 800 MSPS. The digital data stream is now fed through the Texas Instruments LVDT386 250 MSPS differential line receivers to the Ericsson “WARP 1” encoding processors.

Looking at the part of the circuit board that was marked transmit in the first pictures, we can in the following pictures see the digital signal from the decoding processor is the input to the digital to analogue converters.

The Texas Instruments DAC5689 dual channel 800 MSPS 16-bit DAC converts the digital data stream from the Altera FPGA into a analogue signal that goes through the ST Microelectronics upconversion mixer marked 079/6 R1A BAJ HPACS Vd KOR 025, there is however no datasheet available for this IC. Neither is there for the last IC marked H305A MDB3 that sits just before the gold plated socket that goes to the power amplifier.

The following pictures shows the separate power amplifier module. It is apparent that this circuit board is made for many different layouts, frequencies or technologies from the amount of unpopulated areas on the board.

The input from the above transmit circuit on the main board comes through the input connectors to the right in these pictures. The first IC is not able to be identified but must be a preamplifier before entering the Freescale SW7IC2725GN integrated amplifier that also has no datasheet available. From here it goes through a small circulator to isolate the preamplifier from the power amplifier part.

The expanding boxes and funnel like traces are low pass filters and the many stubs and quarter circle quarter wave length traces are working as filters too, to either short or be open circuit at the RF frequency depending on them being grounded or not.

The NXP MRF7S27130HS N-channel RF MOSFET which is capable of 105 Watt CW mode at 2.6 GHz, the combination of the two outputs suggests that it is either a balanced amplifier or a Doherty amplifier setup, seen from the different lengths in the output paths.

The signal is phase shifted through the Anaren Xinger II XC2100-30S hybrid coupler and the isolation between antenna connector and power amplifier is done by the circulator. A signal entering on port 1 of a circulator can only exit on port 2, a signal entering from the antenna on port 2 can only exit on port 3 into the attenuation resistor that goes to ground. This is to prevent signals from going backwards into the amplifier.

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Ericsson Radio Base Station RBS3202 teardown

The RBS 3202 macro is an indoor Radio Base Station with one to four carriers and one to  six sectors at 20/40 Watt RF output power per carrier.

All the boards that I have comes from the middle row in the above picture and unfortunately I did not have any of the power amplifiers that are all at the bottom row.

In 1999 Ericsson had 17 test systems running around the world with WCDMA, which is better known as 3G among normal people. WCDMA stands for Wideband code-division multiple access. This RBS3202 indoor macro system is from around 2008. It also supports all these technologies GSM / EDGE, WCDMA / HSPA and LTE.

The RBS application software is distributed over several processors using the interprocessor communication offered by the platform. The main processors of the
RBS 3000 cooperate to form a main processor cluster (MPC) that executes most of the
control software. The processors that make up the MPC are equal in terms of control —
that is, there are no master-slave relationships between them. However, if one of the processors fails, the program execution is moved to another main processor in the
MPC. For control, most boards are equipped with a board processor (BP). Those units
that do not contain a board processor are monitored by other units.

The following 18 minute video shows the teardown step by step with explanations, high resolution pictures of content is in the last part of the video and also further down this post.

The circuit analysis was made rather difficult from all the custom marked Ericsson parts and other ICs where it is not possible to locate a datasheet.

In the above pictures we see the first system controller board which has the primary power supply input and splits it into multiply supply voltages that goes to the back plane and supply power to the rest of the modules. The bus connections are handled by a Lattice ispGDX2 fast serial I/O IC, it is a high bandwidth BUS interface that can run at speeds up to 38 Gbps.

The main CPU seems to be the Philips VP22530B3 with the Ericsson part number ROP 101 728/2, as this is the CPU that stands out from the identical processors on all the boards that are part of the MPC mentioned first in the article.

The board processor is a Ericsson “DBC” with part number ROP 101 1175/4 which has two Samsung K4S641632K RAM chips next to it, which are each 64MB RAM.

In the above pictures we see the second system controller board which at my best guess just do surveillance of the system. It has 3 identical Ericsson “SPUTNIK” ICs with the part number ROP 101 015/1 that connect to 9 high speed serial lines that goes to the back plane.

The board processor is a Ericsson “DBC” with part number ROP 101 1175/1 which has two ISSI IS42S16400B RAM chips next to it, which are each 64MB RAM.

The above pictures makes me believe that the pre-amplifier board is more of a DAC with filters that an actual amplifier. So I think this is just used for translation of the telecommunication protocols to analogue signal that can be fed to the power amplifier that we could see at the bottom of the system overview picture at the top of the article.

The large Ericsson CPU with part number ROP 101 10125/2 must be handling the protocol translation and feeds high speed digital data to the boards DACs, which are impossible to identify due to custom part numbers and such.

The only identifiable IC is a ADC, a Analog Devices AD9238B which is a 12 bit ADC that has dual channels with each a speed of 65 MSPS.

The board processor is a Ericsson “DBC” with part number ROP 101 1175/1 which has two Samsung K4S281632K RAM chips next to it, which are each 128MB RAM.

The analogue receiver output card that connects directly to the diplexer via a large pin header has a power supply part which seem to feed the diplexer board too. The different outputs at the left top are all split in A and B channel, from the hybrid coupler that gives a phase shifted signal and from the traces it can be seen splitting out.

The board processor is a Ericsson “DBC” with part number ROP 101 1175/3 which has two ISSI IS42S16400B RAM chips next to it, which are each 64MB RAM.

That board also have a first generation Altera Cyclone FPGA that maybe has to do with the connectors in the upper right corner near all the PCB cut-outs and the blue 50 Ohm termination to ground.

The diplexer top cover board also have a first generation Altera Cyclone FPGA in the lower left corner. At the top we can see the two monitor outputs and at the back of the diplexer are the transmitter inputs, these would connect to the power amplifiers sitting at the bottom of the cabinet.

The up side down L shaped cut-outs are the connectors from the diplexer tuned cavities to the antenna connector at the front. The two smaller clusters of SMD components that are on a slightly lighter colour of blue are receiving amplifiers that connect back to the back plane RF connectors and properly back to the pre-amplifier board for analogue to digital conversion.

It is worth noting that these two circuits are not identical, which can be seen in the close up pictures of each. It can also be seen how the signal is led from the circuits to the back plane by ground stitching that runs through and break some other stitching patterns.

The diplexer itself is a little unusual by having a printed circuit board as the top cover and from that design could only have the adjust pins from the back side going up through the columns and not as in many many other designs where the pins goes through the cover and down near the columns in the tuned cavities.

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5kJ capacitor bank, 1.5kJ BANG test at end!

For now all details during development and testing can be found on the forum thread: https://highvoltageforum.net/index.php?topic=25.0

35 capacitors in series, each 450VDC/1000uF, for a 48 uF bank with a voltage rating of 14000VDC, making it able to store roughly 5kJ.

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To all electronic enthusiasts!

I kindly ask you all, that you carefully consider and think about all the websites you have used to learn about electronics, all the forums you have trawled through for information and the vast amount of videos on youtube that has helped you understand and solve a problem.

This information only exists because there are people wanting to let the information live on, from user to user, open platforms like personal websites and forums are indexed and made searchable by almost any search engine on the internet. Imagine if all you ever found on google was closed facebook profiles and no information.

This is a circle of information sharing that has been broken, the eco system of knowledge sharing is dying with social media.

Only uploading pictures of your experiment with a short sentence or “science!” is destroying the electronics hobby, if you value what you have learned on the internet, then give it back to the internet, make your own website or, less time consuming, write a good long thread on a forum about the technical issues you had and how it was solved.

Do not worry about if you think that your english is not good enough, do not fear that you make yourself look inexperienced, so would I in many fields of science and there is no way that I master every aspect of electronics. Ask, Learn and Help each other!

There is a generation gap right now, 20 years ago everyone shared their knowledge on mailing lists or had a html website, next leap came with the blogs where focus could be moved to creating content and not maintaining code, but with social media, all control, history and indexing is gone. There is no information left for the future generations, because it is all posted on closed social media groups. Content is mixed, unorganized and for the most lost for the user after a couple of weeks, way down the stream.

Fight the loss of knowledge! Make a website or post on a forum! Only use social media to link to your website/forum post. This is the only way for the information to live on.

I hope you will share this call to arms with like minded electronics interested people.

Kind regards
Mads Barnkob
Administrator of www.highvoltageforum.net
Author of www.kaizerpowerelectronics.dk
Moderator of www.4hv.org
User of eevblog.com forum and diyaudio.com forum

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Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi WCDMA teardown: integrated Doherty amplifier (part 5)

Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Multiradio BTS is a GSM/EDGE, WCDMA/(I-)HSPA, and LTE base station for use in mobile telecommunication antenna networks. A network that you use daily on your cellphone. Teardown of a NXP BLD6G22L-150 integrated Doherty amplifier from a Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi WCDMA base station.

The previous teardowns that are also highly related to this Part 1: System station, Part 2: Power Amplifier and Part 3: Antenna

All high resolution pictures of the PCB, ICs and Doherty amplifier for this video can be found in part 4: another Power amplifier

The following 9 minute video shows the teardown step by step with explanations.

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